Author(s): Dipam R. Dadhaniya, Prasanna Shama Khandige*, Ullas Prakash DSouza, MP. Gururaj, Himanshu Joshi and Nimmy Chacko
Monosodium glutamate is a food additive found in almost all commercially prepared and packaged food. Though toxicological effects of monosodium glutamate have been extensively studied, still a controversy exists on its genotoxic potential. In the present study, the genotoxic effects of monosodium glutamate were investigated by mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration test and mice bone marrow micronucleus test. The Albino mice (wt=30 g) were divided into different groups (n=6) consisting of control, test (monosodium glutamate 250, 455, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight) and standard (cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg body weight). Monosodium glutamate was administered orally in a single dose whereas cyclophosphamide was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose. Bone marrow slides were prepared for chromosomal aberration and bone marrow micronucleus tests and were compared with control and cyclophosphamide group. Monosodium glutamate induced chromosomal aberrations at all doses and cyclophosphamide induced aberrations at a dose of 100 mg/kg, with treatment periods (24, 48 and 72 hrs) dose dependently. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.01) compared to control, except the results obtained at 250 mg/kg dose. The chromosomal aberration was assessed by taking the percentage of total aberrations induced by the different doses. The bone marrow micronucleus test was assessed by taking the percentage of micronuclei in normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE). Even the bone marrow micronucleus assay showed statistically significant results (P < 0.01) compared to control in a dose dependant manner. Monosodium glutamate decreased the mitotic index (MI) at all doses and treatment periods. Monosodium glutamate also induced micronuclei in a dose dependant manner. The results indicate the potential of monosodium glutamate to be clastogenic.