Author(s): S. Divya1*, S. Sudha Rani2, S. Kavimani1 and R. Murali1
Glitazones are the antihyperglycemic agents used in the treatment of Type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, insulin and sulfonylureas. The drugs - Rosiglitazone and Pioglitazone under this class exert their pharmacological action by directly stimulating the nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-γ) and thereby regulating peripheral insulin resistance. Pioglitazone, the PPAR- γ agonist apart from exerting its hypolipidemic effects and anti-hyperglycaemic effect also has positive pleiotropic effects such as anti-Parkinson’s, anti-bacterial, anti-hypertensive, antiinflammatory actions etc. Renal and hepatic cyst growth inhibition, learning and memory enhancement, blockade of L-type calcium channels in vascular smooth muscles are other effects influenced by pioglitazones. The present review throws light on the additional pharmacological effects of pioglitazone other than its positive effect on glucose metabolism.